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Full text of "The Brantford pottery, 1849-1907 : history and assessment of the stoneware pottery at Brantford, Ontario, including results of excavations and analysis of products"

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LIBRARY 
ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM 



D.B.WEBSTER 

The Brantford Pottery 



ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY OCCASIONAL PAPER 13 




Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Royal Ontario Museum 



http://archive.org/details/brantfordpotteryOOwebs 



Occasional Paper 13 

ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY 
ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM 



d. b. webster The Brantford Pottery 
1849-1907 

History and assessment of the stoneware 
pottery at Brantford, Ontario, including 
results of excavations and analysis of 
products 



ROYAL ONTARIO MUSEUM 

Art and Archaeology Editorial Board 

chairman: P. C. Swann 

Director, Royal Ontario Museum 

editors: Winifred Needier 

Curator, Egyptian Department 
A. D. Tushingham 
Chief Archaeologist 



donald blake webster is Curator of the Canadiana Department, Royal 
Ontario Museum. 



price: $3.00 

© The Royal Ontario Museum, 1968 

PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS 



Contents 

Acknowledgements, 4 

Introduction, 5 

I History of the Pottery, 1 
Illustrations, 1-10, 17 

II Excavations, 22 

Illustrations, 11-25, 28 

III Excavation Recoveries, 41 
Illustrations, 26-64, 47 

IV Assessments and Recapitulation, 69 

V The Pottery After 1883, 71 
Bibliography, 72 
Illustrations, 65-78, 74 



Acknowledgements 



My greatest thanks are due to Mrs. William L. McGill of Brantford, who 
first stimulated the survey, handled all logistics in Brantford and secured 
cooperation on all sides, and served in the trenches throughout both 
segments of the excavations. She has since provided or had made available 
many of the comparative pieces of pottery illustrated in this report. Mayor 
R. B. Beckett of Brantford offered the resources of the city, fencing, tools, 
and the heavy power equipment without which the March excavations 
would have been futile. The unanticipated financial strain of the operation 
was alleviated by a grant from the Archaeological and Historic Sites 
Advisory Board of Ontario. 

I am indebted to Dr. Walter Kenyon, Associate Archaeologist, Royal 
Ontario Museum, for his kind and valuable aid and expertise in guiding 
the initial survey, which was fielded virtually without notice. Numbers of 
enthusiastic and willing diggers, volunteers all, laboured long and hard 
hours in rain and snow, in mud, frigid water, and frozen ground, to com- 
plete the salvage operation. 

Mrs. H. R. M. Ignatieff, Curatorial Assistant, Canadiana Department, 
involved from the beginning, has been a mainstay throughout, and completed 
the excavations when I became a temporary casualty. Miss Janet Holmes, 
Research Assistant, Canadiana Department, involved as well in the entire 
project and excavations, undertook much of the basic research for the 
historical section of this report. 

D.B.W. 



Introduction 



The Brantford stoneware pottery at Brantford, Ontario, one of the two 
earliest manufacturers of stoneware in Canada West, 1 was established in 
1849 by Justus Morton of Lyons, New York. Through seven proprietors 
and partnerships and totally destructive fires in 1872 and 1883, the pottery 
operated almost continuously from 1849 until 1907. In terms of production 
and annual gross income, it was the largest pottery in Canada throughout 
its existence, and enjoyed without serious competition the whole of rapidly- 
growing southern and south-western Ontario as its marketing area. 

Until about 1875 the Brantford pottery produced only items of basic 
container stoneware, salt-glazed or brown slip-coated, in a great variety 
of jars, jugs, crocks, churns, bottles, and pots. 

Stoneware as a hard and durable pottery was developed in China well 
before a.d. 1000, and was being traded to Europe, via Arab caravans, by 
late Medieval times. German potters were producing stoneware by the 
thirteenth century. Rather than copying Chinese coloured glazes, the 
Germans developed, perhaps after accidental discovery, a technique of 
salt-glazing whereby common salt, vaporized in the extreme heat of the 
pottery-firing kiln, combined chemically with silica in the body of the 
pottery to form a transparent sodium silicate glaze. Produced later in 
England, for several centuries salt-glazed stoneware remained the most 
satisfactory known ceramic material, until in the late eighteenth century 
it was replaced for finer wares by semi-china clays. 

Prior to this investigation, only the proprietor-marked, salt-glazed con- 
tainer wares, as well as a later but undatable range of moulded yellow, 
green, and blue glazed wares (often marked brantford/canada), had 
been assignable to Brantford. 

From the archaeological aspect of this study we have been able to 
define a large and new range of middle period (1873-83) yellow and 
Rockingham-glazed wares. None of these could previously be attributed to 
Brantford because of an absence of markings. On the other hand, the 
absence of the brantford/canada marked wares from the excavations 
has clearly shown that these pieces are later than 1883, the date of the 
second fire. 

Thus we now know that after about 1875 the Brantford firm, under the 
the proprietorship of William E. Welding, began production of a full range 
of stoneware press-moulded and slip-cast household wares, from bowls to 
teapots, from pitchers to spittoons. Glazes were largely brown slip, yellow 
or Rockingham (mottled brown over base yellow). Salt-glazed containers 
continued to be the pottery's basic product, but the manufacture of moulded 
household pottery had become competitively essential. Yellow- and Rock- 
ingham-glazed stonewares had become extremely popular in the United 

x David & Patricia Taylor, The Hart Pottery, Canada West (Picton, Ont., Picton 
Gazette Publishing Co., 1966), p. 3. The Hart pottery, established in January, 1849, 
also has a solid claim. 



States, and by the 1870's were being produced in vast quantities by 
potteries in Vermont, New York, New Jersey and Ohio. Welding, pro- 
prietor/manager of the Brantford Pottery from 1867 to 1894, was most 
certainly aware of popular styles and trends, and had the apparent fore- 
sight and business acumen to meet this competition before it became a 
threat. 2 

The Brantford industry, because of its huge marketing area and the 
great variety of its products, was not only the largest pottery-manufacturing 
operation in Canada but also one of the most important and best-known — 
the equal in Canada perhaps of the famous Norton and Fenton potteries 
at Bennington, Vermont. Much of the Brantford pottery's growth and 
importance was certainly due to its proprietors' ready acceptance of newly 
developed manufacturing techniques, and the early use of mass-productive 
machinery, all at a time when the few other stoneware producers in Ontario, 
and dozens of earthenware potters, depended entirely on hand labour and 
traditional pottery-forming methods. The Brantford pottery was a factory 
in the modern sense, based on capital equipment, and not a craft shop. 
In fact, it was one herald in Ontario of the demise of commercial enterprise 
based on traditional craft and hand-labour systems, and certainly of pottery 
as a product of individual craftsmen. The Brantford Pottery was one of 
the earlier members in Canada of a new order, the technological revolution 
which was introducing, slowly but steadily, a vast cultural change. 

2 Warner, Beers & Co., The History of the County of Brant, Ontario . . . 
(Toronto, Warner, Beers & Co., 1883), p. 296, 543. 



I History of the Brantford Pottery 



Justus Morton had emigrated from Lyons, New York, in 1848, evidently 
with the full intention and sufficient capital to establish a stoneware pottery 
factory at Brantford. Since he was a trained potter, Morton had undoubt- 
edly worked at the Nathan Clark pottery at Lyons, one of the two subsi- 
diaries (from about 1825) of the Clark pottery at Athens, N.Y., on the 
Hudson River. The Clark pottery (1805-1892) was one of the longest- 
lived of any nineteenth century stoneware producer, and from the end effect 
of the migrations of its ex-apprentices and employees, men like Morton, 
was one of the most influential pottery complexes in North America. 1 

Early in 1849, Morton established a small factory at the corner of 
Dalhousie and Clarence Streets in Brantford and began production in the 
Clark manner of common salt-glazed container stoneware. He had not 
initially bought the lots (31 and 32) which his pottery occupied, but 
apparently had a leasehold. The first factory was a wooden building, 
perhaps existing prior to Morton's coming but certainly improved and 
adapted by him. 2 He also built a brick kiln for firing and salt-glazing 
stoneware. 

In common with all stoneware producers, Morton's special problem was 
his clay. To fuse properly and produce the characteristic hard and imper- 
meable pottery, stoneware requires a quite special clay with a high kaolin 
and silica content. In Morton's time stoneware clay was not mined any- 
where in Canada; even today exploitable deposits are known only in 
southern Alberta and in Nova Scotia. The limited occurrence of proper 
clay restricted the location of nineteenth century stoneware potteries to 
sites close to navigable waterways. 

Virtually every stoneware producer used clay from Morgan's Bank at 
Amboy, New Jersey, or from Long Island, shipped by sloop or canal 
barge. The Clark pottery at Lyons, N.Y., for example, brought clay up 
the Hudson, and west via the Erie Canal. Morton used the same source 
(in fact New Jersey clay was used throughout the pottery's existence) and 
the same route, bringing clay by barge to Bulraio on the Erie Canal. 3 
From there it was transported to Brantford on i... ke Erie and the Grand 
River, probably by the Grand River Navigation Company, which operated 
paddle steamers and barges between Buffalo and Brantford after 1849. 4 

There is little doubt that Morton's pottery was an initial success. By the 
early 1850s the pottery employed about six men, producing pottery to a 
gross valuation of about $8,000 a year. 5 The first known listing appears 
in The Canada Directory for 1851 : 

Morton & Co., stoneware factory and pottery, Dalhousie St. — This is the only 
stoneware factory in C.W., and every article will be warranted equal to any 
made in North America, and be supplied upon as good terms. 

All of Morton's production was container stoneware, salt-glazed outside, 
and lined with a wash of brown slip clay. Virtually all stoneware potters 



of the period marked their pieces just below the rims, using a hand stamp 
of printers' type set in a wooden block. Morton's marking through 1856, 
though it varied in type size and style, was morton & co/brantford, c.w., 
in two lines. Like most such markings, Morton's stamping, pressed into the 
wet clay of freshly-turned pottery, was coloured with blue cobalt-oxide 
glaze, the same glaze as was used for painting flower and other decorations 
on the body of the pottery. 7 

On July 23, 1853, Morton bought the pottery site, with improvements, 
for £125 from O. and P. Robinson. The sale was witnessed by "Wm. E. 
Welding, Pedler." 8 Welding, who was later to operate the pottery for so 
many years, had come to Brantford in 1841, and in the early 1850s was 
employed by Morton as a pottery salesman. 9 

About 1856, Morton entered into a business partnership, without change 
in property ownership, with A. B. Bennett who had been and probably 
still was a partner in the Goold and Bennett foundry, stove manufacturers. 10 
Pottery made under the partnership was marked morton & bennett/ 

BRANTFORD, C.W. 

The Morton and Bennett partnership was dissolved some time in 1857, 
and Morton evidently leased the pottery complex to James Woodyatt, who 
used the firm name and pottery marking james woodyatt & co. In 1858 
Woodyatt was described as manufacturing stoneware, fire brick, and 
draining tile. Shackleton mentions that the pottery was awarded two prizes 
at the Canada West exhibition of 1857, one for the best specimen of 
pottery, the other for the best assortment. 11 

Woodyatt gave up the pottery and his lease in 1859 to become the first 
town clerk of Brantford, 12 and Morton again took over, now apparently 
in partnership with Franklin P. Goold (of the Goold & Bennett foundry). 
This partnership is established only by a single known piece, a salt-glazed 
churn in a private collection, marked morton, goold & co. /brantford, 
c.w. (fig. 2) and in any event was short-lived. 

On August 20, 1859, Justus and Elizabeth Morton sold the pottery to 
Franklin P. Goold and Charles H. Waterous for $2,250. 13 Waterous was 
probably a financial backer, and had been connected with Goold previously 
in another enterprise, the Waterous Engine Works Co., manufacturing 
machinery. 14 

Franklin P. Goold was born in New Hampshire in 1813, and came to 
Brantford about 1840. Previous to buying the pottery he had been a 
partner in the Goold and Bennett foundry, and in the Waterous company, 
and even had an interest in early oil refining. 15 A general entrepreneur, 
Goold was not a potter, and had no experience in the stoneware pottery 
business. 

By now, however, there is little doubt that William E. Welding, as well 
as pottery salesman, was de facto works manager. While no more a working 
potter than Goold, Welding was thoroughly versed in the business. 

Under Goold's proprietorship, the pottery continued making only basic 
salt-glazed container wares. In 1864 he won first prize at the Canada 
West exhibition for an assortment of stoneware, and in 1865 a prize for the 
best ceramic water filterer. ir> Through 1865 the pottery used the marking 

8 



f. p. goold & co. / brantford, c.w., and after 1865 both that and, parti- 
cularly on heavier pieces, brantford stoneware works. 

No stoneware pottery was ever more than minimally profitable, and 
financial troubles may have necessitated Morton's several partnerships 
during his later period. Certainly Goold had his problems. In 1867 the 
Bank of British North America foreclosed on a mortgage that Goold had 
taken out some time previously. Apparently the amount of the mortgage 
was satisfied from stock on hand and working capital, for James C. Geddes, 
as trustee for the bank, then conveyed back to Goold the land and premises. 

On October 29, 1867, Goold sold the pottery to William Erastus 
Welding, by then general manager of the pottery, and William Wallace 
Belding, for $3,200.' 7 

In spite of financial problems, the pottery was by now one of Brantford's 
largest industries, and very much a solidly productive organization. A 
report made in 1865 18 resulted in one of the best contemporary descriptions 
of a nineteenth century pottery operation in Ontario: 

On our recent visit to Brantford, we embraced the opportunity of going 
through the pottery at that place, where Mr. Welding, the enterprising agent 
and manager, was good enough to facilitate our inspection of the works. . . . 

At the Brantford pottery we beheld in busy operation the celebrated 
potter's wheel, almost exactly as it was in Egypt before the birth of Moses; 
and the dexterous hands of the workman, forming out of a rude lump of 
clay vessels of various shapes and uses, with a rapidity and ease really 
wonderful. 

This establishment has been in successful operation, and doing a steadily 
increasing business for the last fifteen years. It employs some fifteen hands, 
and the annual value of its products, as we were informed, is about $25,000, 
which are in good demand throughout Upper and Lower Canada. In firing 
the ware, there are here two kilns, one 14 feet by 11, and 7 feet in height; 
the other circular, 1 1 feet diameter and 9 feet in height. To heat these kilns 
and fire the ware the best pine wood is used, and the process occupies about 
forty-eight hours — the larger kiln consuming fifteen cords of wood, and the 
smaller one nine, the yearly consumption being 500 cords. The clay used 
comes from New Jersey, and produces a fine, light-coloured, strong ware 
for culinary and other purposes, to which, in form and substance, it is 
admirably adapted. 

In the commonest articles there is not wanting a certain chasteness and 
symmetry of form; while in some, especially pitchers, jugs &c, are observable 
many of those elements of beautiful form presented in the antique models. 
And here we venture to repeat, that the growing taste of the people, created 
by looking on so many beautiful objects everywhere to be met with, should 
admonish manufacturers of whatever articles, even the commonest for 
every-day use, that something more than mere utility is required by the 
humbler, as well as the higher classes of society. If this be not attended to, 
they will have no right, and it will avail them nothing, to complain that home 
industry is not patronized. 

As in all potteries of any pretensions, a designer is here engaged for the 
purpose of giving form to the new articles constantly required to satisfy 
the demands of the market. Upon the whole we have never seen better 
ware of the kind, and we have pleasure in adding that there is no poisonous 



substance entering into the composition of the glaze. For this purpose a 
kind of clay is used, which is fusible at the heat required to fire the ware. 
The skill of the workman in this place may be judged by the fact of our 
being shewn vessels of all sorts of shapes and capacities, from the well- 
formed stone bottle which would hold but one drop, to the barrel of 35 
gallons. 

The partnership of Welding & Belding continued producing the same 
varied forms of container stoneware that had been made before, but may 
have begun utilising somewhat more modern equipment. 

Somewhere during this period, too, though just when cannot be deter- 
mined, there came a shift in the manner of transporting the raw stoneware 
clay from New Jersey, from the old and traditional canal and lake route 
to far faster and only little more expensive shipment by railroad. The New 
York Central Railroad had been in full operation from New York City 
to Buffalo by the late 1840s, and on Friday, January 13, 1854, the Buffalo 
and Brantford railway opened, completing all the necessary connections. 19 

On December 1, 1872, at about three o'clock in the morning, the 
pottery and all of its outbuildings burned completely, including the total 
destruction of some $9,000 of pottery in stock at the time, and all tools 
and equipment. The company records and billings, in an iron safe, were 
saved. The precise cause of the fire was never established. 20 

The Pottery Burned 

On Sunday morning last at about 3 o'clock, the pottery, belonging to Messrs. 
Welding & Belding, was discovered to be on fire. When first seen the main 
building was enveloped in flames and before the Fire Brigade reached the 
scene — owing to the imperfect manner in which the alarm was given — it had 
collapsed. The Waterworks were as usual prompt in supplying water in 
abundance, but from some cause — doubtless one that could not be foreseen — 
the Brigade did not get their streams turned on with their usual alacrity. 
The flames which had, therefore, been allowed to pursue their course so long 
unchecked, spread to the adjoining tenement, the wood yard and wood 
sheds, which contained some 600 cords of dry pine. The sheds and tenement 
were soon consumed and but a portion of the wood in the yard was rescued 
by the efforts of the firemen from the devouring element. In an hour or two 
the pottery and its surrounding buildings were but a smouldering ruins, little 
else remaining than the two great uncouth kilns to mark the spot where the 
works had stood. 

There was a large quantity of stone-ware in the building — nearly $9,000 
worth — at the time, which met the fate of all carelessly handled "potters' 
vessels". The whole was buried in the ruins. All the appartus, etc., used in 
the works, were, it is needless to say, also swallowed up. The total loss is 
estimated at $10,000. The building and its contents were insured for $7,000, 
as follows: $4,000 in the Hartford, and $3,000 in the Gore Mutual. The 
direct loss to the firm will, therefore, be about $3,000. The safe, which was 
in the north-western corner of the main building, was dragged out as soon 
as the heat would allow men to approach near enough to grapple with it. 
Its contents gave evidence of having "gone through the fire", but were 
sufficiently well preserved to be good for all practical purposes. 

How the fire originated baffles the minds of the proprietors. While using a 

10 



number of stoves of various descriptions and situated in different parts of the 
building, they had always been most particular in observing that they were 
shut up before the works closed for the night. They think it very improbable 
— if not impossible — that the building caught from the stoves referred to, and 
the flames had attained to such headway before they were detected that it is 
impossible to locate their starting point. It is not supposed that it was the 
work of an incendiary, but it is conjectured that some one of the loafers in 
town that day may have crept into one of the wood sheds for shelter, and in 
lighting his pipe, or by some other means, may have ignited the pottery. No 
one was, however, seen in its vicinity who could be suspected, and all else is 
conjecture. 

We understand the firm will re-build again as soon as possible. 

The factory destroyed, Welding and Belding dissolved their partnership 
on December 18, 1872. For the sum of $1.00 Welding sold the property to 
William Belding, subject to two outstanding mortgages totalling $2,500. 21 
In March, 1873, Welding then re-purchased the actual pottery site from 
his ex-partner for $1,000. It is evident that a part of the agreement under 
which the partnership was dissolved was the paying-off, by William Belding, 
of the earlier $1,500 mortgage. 22 

Welding, now sole proprietor, began to rebuild almost immediately. The 
partnership had still occupied the original wooden building; it was essen- 
tially Morton's original pottery that burned. The new building, however, 
was built of brick. Construction began in late March and must have pro- 
ceeded rapidly. On August 15, 1873, a small item in the Brantjord 
Expositor heralded the opening of the new pottery, and confirmed the 
railroad transportation of clay. 23 

potters' clay — The first cargo of stoneware clay for Mr. Welding's new 
pottery is being unloaded at his pottery here. It employed 17 cars in trans- 
portation, being, we believe, the largest cargo ever delivered at the works. 
Mr. Welding expects to be manufacturing in a few days. 

The new factory, with a near monopoly of the western Ontario market 
for stoneware, continued to grow in volume and variety of production. The 
primary products were still salt-glazed, brown slip-lined containers, most 
now stamped, under Welding's sole proprietorship, w. e. welding / Brant- 
ford, Ont. During the 1 870s, however, Welding began to diversify into some- 
what finer household stoneware of the type that was becoming increasingly 
popular in the United States. 

Welding was an astute businessman, but the diversification was largely 
forced by increasing competition from imported housewares, particularly 
moulded rather than wheel-turned articles with the mottled tortoise-shell 
brown glaze known as Rockingham. While most heavy salt-glazed con- 
tainers were hand-formed on a potter's wheel, the Rockingham-glazed 
housewares were either pressed from flat sheets of rolled clay, or slip-cast, 
formed by semi-liquid clay poured into a plaster mould. 

The mottled brown Rockingham glaze was originally developed at the 
pottery of the Marquis of Rockingham at Swinton, England. By 1835 
Rockingham pottery was in production in the U.S., and by the 1850s came 
to be universally manufactured from New England to Ohio. 24 

11 



In 1875 the Brantford pottery, certainly equipped with some moulding 
machinery, and perhaps already producing Rockingham-glazed wares, was 
described as follows: 25 

The fire in December, 1872, brought the works to an abrupt termination, and 
the new factory was built and is owned by Mr. W. E. Welding alone. The 
present building is situated on the site of the old one, at the corner of 
Clarence and Dalhousie Streets, adjacent to the Great Western Railway. It is 
a fine two-storey white brick building arranged in the best possible shape for 
the requirements of the business, and having all the improvements and 
appliances which a long experience would suggest. From 500 to 600 tons of 
clay are used each year, requiring the services of eleven men, who turn out 
$35,000 worth of goods annually. 

Though Welding diversified his production in terms of variety of items 
offered, by 1883 about 75 per cent of the factory's output was still salt- 
glazed container wares, with perhaps 25 per cent in Rockingham and 
yellow-glazed housewares. That the pottery continued to prosper there is 
no doubt; by 1883 it had fifteen employees turning out a gross annual 
production of probably $45,000-50,000. 

A description of 1883 mentions that: 

There are four departments in the factory, viz: one for preparing the clay, the 
the turning room, the moulding room, and the burning department. Fifteen 
men are employed, and the most extensive pottery business of Canada is 
carried on here. The ware produced is of a superior quality, and finds ready 
sale in the market at the highest figures. 26 

In July, 1883, the pottery for a second time was destroyed by a fire 
starting, as in 1872, early in the morning. The pottery building and 
outbuildings were again totally lost, including even stored cordwood and 
clay, and of course all stock on hand: 27 

FURIOUS FLAMES 

Mr. W. E. Welding's Stoneware works completely destroyed. 

The Origin of the Fire remains a conjecture. 

Inadequate Fire Alarm and Defective Hose. 

On Sunday morning, Dec, 1st, 1872, the Pottery, as it was then called, and 
owned by Messrs. Welding and Belding, was destroyed by fire, which origi- 
nated in a back shed, but from what cause was never known. On May 1st, 
1873, the new building was begun by Mr. W. E. Welding, and the business, 
pushed with the energy characteristic of the proprietor began to increase 
until now it had become a source of pride and wealth to him. The works 
were among the largest in the country, tons upon tons of the finest clay were 
stored upon the grounds, nearly 600 cords of pine wood, about half of which 
was split ready for the oven, were stacked in the yards, while within the 
building in various stages of manufacture was a large stock of ware, including 
a kiln full, which was being burned. 

Friday morning about five o'clock flames were seen issuing from the clay 
shed in rear of the works, and an attempt at alarm was made, but it was 

12 



nearly six o'clock before the old bell in the city clock tower was set ringing, 
and then only those in the near vicinity heard its feeble tones, many of the 
firemen knowing nothing of the fire until they were going to their work at 
seven o'clock, two hours after the fire had broken out. By this time, although 
those present were working like heroes, the fire had extended to the whole 
building, enveloped the huge pile of pine wood which crackled and hissed in 
demoniacal glee, the stifling black clouds of smoke had given place to soft, 
creamy banks which rolled gracefully towards heaven, black masses of ruins 
began to be visible where but a few hours before stood the neat and extensive 
premises. Six streams of water were thrown upon the flames, but the war of 
the elements was one-sided, the fire had obtained the mastery of the situation; 
the hose which by neglect had become rotten, was bursting at every point, and 
seriously impeded the efforts of the firemen, who laboured on and on, many 
of them without breakfast until after ten o'clock when a few fresh men were 
forthcoming. Mr. Hemphill, the bookkeeper, upon the first' alarm, hurried 
down to the works and removed all the books and papers from the vault with 
the hot flames about him. 

The buildings, with the exception of the kiln, in which there is about $800 
or $900 worth of stock, are completely destroyed, the large stock of clay 
probably all destroyed, and 500 or 600 cords of wood consumed. 

The loss will aggregate in the vicinity of $10,000 which is probably fully 
insured as follows: in the Royal Canadian Insurance Company $4,000; 
Hartford Insurance Co., $5,800. 

Mr. Welding will immediately rebuild upon a more extensive plan. 

As a slight compensation for the manner in which the firemen wrought, he 
kindly gave Chief McCann a cheque for $50, not so much for what they 
saved, as for what they tried to save. 

Rubble was cleared and levelled and Welding began construction of a 
new and larger brick building, on the same site, almost immediately. To 
fill outstanding orders during the construction period, he brought in pottery 
stocks from two other stoneware potteries: 28 

Brantford Stoneware Works 



After the Fire 



Mr. Welding is busily engaged preparing for the re-erection of his stoneware 
works which will be done immediately, on a considerably larger scale than 
formerly. The rubbish is being cleared away and brick is being delivered so 
that operations may be commenced at once. Mr. Welding has also been most 
expeditious in placing himself in a position to meet the wants of his many 
customers, who, notwithstanding the recent fire, can have their orders filled as 
usual. He is now ready to supply them all, having purchased the stock and 
secured the services of two of the best stoneware potteries in Canada. Those 
desiring stoneware can thus be supplied from the Brantford works, which in 
a very short time will have facilities for turning out a larger stock than ever 
of the well known and appreciated Brantford ware. 

The brick building, though probably not totally collapsed, had to be 
razed. The cellars which, as the excavations later indicated, had almost 
certainly not been completely cleared after the fire of 1872 or used there- 
after, were now filled with even more brick, wood and ashes, as well as the 
remains of a large pottery inventory which the Expositor failed to mention. 

13 



The new building, completed in late 1883 or early 1884, was built 
without cellars except for coal bunkers under the west (Clarence Street) 
wing, parallel to the railroad tracks. The cellars of the burned building 
were not cleared, but rather were surfaced with fresh earth overlying all of 
the fire rubble, which was evidently left undisturbed. The new building thus 
had its ground floor as the lowest level; somewhat later, after 1914, a 
concrete floor slab was poured, covering the earth fill. 29 

With the third building, the pottery entered a new era in which 
Rockingham and yellow-glazed house wares became, economically if not 
numerically, the primary product; salt-glazed containers, now facing a 
shrinking market in the face of competition from glass and sheet-metal 
wares, and the growth of prepared foods and canned goods, became 
secondary. Salt-glazed storage vessels continued to be marked with Weld- 
ing's stamp. Moulded and slip-cast pottery had previously been unmarked, 
and probably so continued through the remainder of Welding's proprietor- 
ship, to 1894. 

In 1 894, Welding sold the pottery to Dr. David Lowrey, physician, for 
$7,200, subject to an outstanding mortgage of $4,000 which Lowrey 
assumed. 80 Lowrey then secured a new mortgage for $6,000, retiring the 
earlier debt, and applying the difference of $2,000 with another $4,000 of 
personal funds to the purchase price. John P. Hemphill of Brantford then 
advanced $500, and Henry Schuler $l,000. :n 

On August 11, 1894, the pottery was incorporated as the Brantford 
Stoneware Manufacturing Company, which issued stock relative to invest- 
ment to Lowrey, Hemphill, and Schuler. 82 Finally Lowrey conveyed, for 
$1.00 subject to the $6,000 mortgage, his title to land and plant to the new 
corporation. 88 

Under the new organization, Lowrey became president, Hemphill 
secretary, and Schuler superintendent and plant manager. Henry Schuler, 
the only potter among the company officers, had originally come to either 
the Marlatt or Jacob Ahrens pottery at Paris, Ontario, a few miles from 
Brantford. In 1869, he and Peter McGlade took over the Marlatt pottery, 
making both earthenware and stoneware. Schuler's pottery, as was the 
Ahrens pottery, may well have been washed out in the Paris flood of 1883, 
and in 1885 Schuler was listed as a potter in Brantford, most certainly 
as an employee of Welding, and probably later as plant manager. 84 

A souvenir issue of the Brantford Expositor in December, 1895, pub- 
lished a photograph of the factory and mentioned that: 

Considerable improvements and additions were made to the premises [after 
incorporation]. Among them might be mentioned an immense new kiln, one 
of the finest in Ontario and which has now equipped the stoneware works 
until they can now compete with any firm in the country. 35 

The company's salt-glazed wares, now so unimportant a part of the 
total production that they were not even mentioned in advertising, were 
largely undecorated — designs on storage vessels, in cobalt-blue glaze, had 
nearly disappeared with increasing mechanization. The marking had 
become brantford stoneware mfg. co. / brantford, ont. or b.s. co. 

14 



ltd. Moulded and slip-cast articles, unmarked probably throughout Weld- 
ing's period, were marked brantford / Canada on their bases. This mark- 
ing, however, is not as sharp as an impressed stamping, and is glazed over; 
obviously the mark, as with decorative patterns, was an integral part of 
the forming moulds, rather than being separately impressed. 

A quarter-centennial special issue of the Expositor on December 20, 
1902, reproduced the 1895 photograph, and described the pottery at that 
time. 

. . . Another fire occurred in July, 1883, the premises being entirely 
destroyed. A short time afterwards, or in 1884, the present fine and com- 
modious factory at the corner of Dalhousie and Clarence Streets was built, 
whose dimensions are 140 X 120 feet — two stories and basement [only coal 
bunkers]. In the year 1894 the Brantford Stoneware Company was formed 
and purchased the business from Mr. Welding. The manufactured articles 
include Rockingham caneware, majolica, stone linings, fire brick of all kinds, 
wares for chemical and sanitary purposes, etc. About 30 men are given 
constant employment, and the firm's wares find a ready market in all parts of 
Canada; in fact, the Company are unable to keep up with their orders. Most 
of the raw material is secured in New Jersey. . . . 

The company continued in business only through 1906. Since no 
financial information has been discovered, we cannot ascertain what caused 
or motivated the dissolution of the company, particularly after the apparent 
prosperity of 1902. Henry Schuler's age combined with increasing competi- 
tion and declining markets for some products may well have affected a final 
decision. 

In any event, in January, 1907, the plant and land were sold by the 
company for $9,000 to Solomon Malener and Abraham Rosenfeld, mer- 
chants operating under the name of Brantford Rag and Metal Company. 86 
Pottery manufacture came to an end. 

The building was gradually but radically changed during the twentieth 
century, being used first by the rag and metal company, at one point as a 
blacksmith shop and garage, and finally as an automobile agency and 
showroom. The land and building were then sold to Firestone Stores, and 
the building was demolished, including removal of the concrete floor slab, 
in December, 1966. 



1 D. B. Webster, American Decorated Stoneware, (ms. in press, Rutland, Vt., 
Charles E. Tuttle Co.) ch. 3 & ff. 

2 Warner, Beers, 296, 543. 

3 Webster, ch. 3 & ff. 

4 F. Douglas Reveille, History of the County of Brant (2 v., Brantford, Ont., 
Brant Historical Society, 1920), I, 181. 

r, Warner, Beers, 296. 

c Robert W. S. Mackay, The Canada Directory, containing the names of the 
professional and business men of every description, in the cities, towns, and principal 
villages of Canada (Montreal, John Lovell, 1851 ), p. 37. 

7 Webster, ch. 3, 4. 

8 Memorial 170, July 23, 1853, in Brant County Registry Office. 

9 Warner, Beers, 543. 
10 Mackay, Canada Directory, 1857-58. 
Reveille, T, 122. 

15 



n Mackay, Canada Directory, 1857-58. 
Philip Shackleton, Potteries of 19th century Ontario (Report to Dept. of Nor- 
thern Affairs & Natural Resources, Historic Sites Branch, Ottawa, 1964) 

^Communication from Mrs. C. F. K. Woodyatt, Brantford, Ont. 

^Memorial 2299, August 20, 1859, in Brant County Registry Office. 

^Reveille, I, 123. 

15 Warner, Beers, 507. 

]fi Shackleton report. 

17 Memorial 4321, October 29, 1867, in Brant County Registry Office. 

^^Journal of the Board of Arts and Manufactures for Upper Canada (5v., 
Toronto, 1865), V. 

1 "Reveille, I, 184. 

- a Brantford Expositor, Friday, Dec. 6, 1872. 

21 Memorial 6623, December 18, 1872, in Brant County Registry Office. 

--Memorial 6716, March 8, 1873, in Brant County Registry Office. 

- A B rant ford Expositor, August 15, 1873. 

1>4 Richard Carter Barret, Bennington Pottery and Porcelain (New York, 1958), 
18-19. 

2r, Page & Smith, Illustrated Historical Atlas of the County of Brant, Ontario . . . 
(Toronto, Page & Smith, 1875). 13. 

26 Warner, Beers, 296. 

27 Brantford Expositor, July 27, 1883. 

2S Brantford Weekly Expositor, August 3, 1883. 

29 A carriage catalogue of 1914 was found slightly imbedded in the surface fill, 
beneath the removed concrete slab. 

30Memorial 21879, June 18, 1894, in Brant County Registry Office. 

;}1 Memorial 22114, October 5, 1894, in Brant County Registry Office. 

82 Letters Patent, under Ontario Joint Stock Companies Letters Patent Act, R.S.O. 
1887 Chap. 157. 

^Memorial 22114, October 5, 1894. 

84 Shackleton report. 

'•^Brantford Expositor, special issue, December, 1895. 

:!,; Memorial 33410, January 26, 1907, in Brant County Registry Office. 



16 



Fig. 1 Blue-decorated salt-glazed 
five-gallon open crock, marked 

MORTON & CO. / BRANTFORD, C.W., 

c. 1849-56. 
Private collection 




"■■■■-:■::■:■ v^ -.';/y- 



%.i 




I I 



Fig. 2 Five-gallon salt-glazed churn 
with floral decoration in blue, marked 

MORTON, GOOLD & CO. / BRANTFORD, 

c.w., c. 1859. 
Private collection 



17 




> 









Fig. 3 Salt-glazed and blue-decorated 
three-gallon jug, marked f. p. goold / 

BRANTFORD, C. 1859-67. 

Private collection 








«■»"—. 








" 






* 













VUBt 












/ 



Fig. 4 Representative marked sherds, 
including two variations of morton 
& co. (top), and on the left stampings 

Of F. P. GOOLD, W. E. WELDING, and 
WELDING & BELDING. 

The two sherds on the right are 
stamped with individual merchant's 
markings, commonly applied at the 
pottery on special order. 




Fig. 5 Seven-gallon crock by F. P. 
Goold, c. 1859-67. The decoration of 
two birds was incised in the clay and 
coloured with blue glaze. 
Incised rather than painted decora- 
tions, a form most common in the 
1810-1840 period, from existing 
examples are known only during 
Goold 's proprietorship. 
Private collection 








/' 



14 Yz 3 A 1 



3 
INCHES 



Fig. 6 The recovery of only two isolated incised sherds (Trench 3, Level 3), probably 
of the Goold period, indicates the very uncommon use of this technique. 



19 






ml *• *• *• 




Fig. 7 F. P. Goold, apparently alone 
among the Brantford Pottery pro- 
prietors, occasionally produced glaze- 
painted designs other than the stan- 
dard floral motifs. This extremely 
unusual outline-stencilled decoration 
of a cow was done over a paper 
cut-out overlay. The three-gallon 
crock is marked f. p. goold / 

BRANTFORD. 

Private collection 




Fig. 8 The only known view of the second pottery building, built in 1873 after the 
fire of the previous December, and destroyed by fire in July, 1883. The view is to the 
northeast, with Clarence Street to the left and Dalhousie Street to the right. Engraving 
from Page and Smith, Illustrated Historical Atlas of the County of Brant . . ., 
Toronto, 1875. 



20 





Fig. 9 Standard salt-glazed containers, a one-gallon jug and a six-gallon open crock, 
both marked w. e. welding / brantford, ont., c. 1875. Private collection 







li*> 




Fig. 10 As well as storage containers, W. E. Welding during the 1870s produced 
heavy milk or butter bowls such as this, usually marked, and lined with brown slip. 
Rimsherds of numbers of such bowls were found throughout the excavations (fig. 4, 
third left). 
Canadiana, R.o.M. 



21 



II Excavations 



The site of the Brantford pottery, at the corner of Dalhousie and Clarence 
Streets, is in a low-lying area in what may be an ancient stream bed. Run- 
ning approximately north and south, some 50 yards east of the pottery, is 
a small stream, once with sloping natural banks but presently confined 
within a concrete-walled channel. The earlier banks have been filled to a 
present surface 4/2 feet above water level. 

The pottery site, lot 32 and part of lot 33, is flat and level. At the time 
of first excavations on December 10 and 11, 1966, the pottery building, 
built in 1884, and an internal ground-level concrete floor slab had been 
demolished and removed, leaving the site of 100 X 120 feet as bare earth, 
surrounded on the north and east sides by asphalt-covered parking lot. 

We had been aware of the importance of the pottery for some time, but 
not of the imminent sale and demolition of the building, nor of the future 
building plans of Firestone Stores, which had recently purchased the site. 
Demolition occurred on December 5 and 6; I was advised, absolutely by 
surprise, by Mrs. William L. McGill in Brantford. Following some con- 
siderable telephoning, we secured permission to excavate the site during 
the short time it would be clear between demolition and Firestone Store's 
projected building date, set for the earliest possible time the following 
spring. 

This was to be, by necessity, a salvage operation, intended primarily to 
establish and confirm the types and varieties of pottery produced and 
approximate periods of production of each, as well as what we could 
determine of production and firing techniques and mechanics. Caught as 
we were between the weather and imminent frozen ground, and the Fire- 
stone contractor's scheduled construction start the following March, we had 
to complete the excavation as speedily and efficiently as possible. 

Initially we knew little of what to expect, for there had been no oppor- 
tunity for advance documentary research. Conversely, we were quite 
familiar with at least the salt-glazed container wares, through numbers of 
existing marked pieces by all of the various proprietors and partnerships. 
The primary question was the identification and dating of the range of finer 
moulded and slip-cast ware, all unmarked and never previously attributable. 
The building foundations we viewed as only the shell of the productive 
entity, and of little importance alone; in any event there would be no 
opportunity to explore them adequately. 

I first examined the site on December 8, and with Dr. Walter Kenyon, 
Associate Archaeologist, r.o.m., and a crew of volunteers, did an initial 
basic survey on the weekend of December 10 and 11. Weather was a 
hindrance — sleet, freezing rain, and temperatures of 35 to 40 degrees on 
Saturday, colder with light snow on Sunday. The ground, however, was not 
yet frozen. 

During these two days we excavated one north-south survey trench with 

22 



an intersecting east-west rectangular trench (Trenches 1 and 2), Trench 1 
to a depth of three feet, Trench 2 to five feet. 

Over the entire site, the surface layer consisted of earth fill 8 to 12 
inches deep, mixed with scattered yellow and red brick and some salt- 
glazed sherds. A second layer, in Trench 2 to a depth of 3'6" to 4 feet, 
consisted entirely of compacted salt-glazed sherds and production pieces 
(saggers, wedges, setting tiles, etc.) with brick rubble and occasional pieces 
of charred wood, all in a mixture of water-borne surface fill earth and/or 
grey wood ash. A base layer of brown sand began at about four feet. 

Since this was simply a weekend survey, no attempt was made to 
determine stratigraphy, if any. No conclusions were based on Trenches 1 
and 2, except that the site was well worth further excavation. 

In addition to the preponderance of salt-glazed sherds, we found occa- 
sional sherds of Rockingham-glazed wares, all without decorative mould- 
ings, and scattered individual sherds of, apparently, small yellow-glazed 
bowls with thin white horizontal lines overlying the base glaze. Recovered 
also were three reconstructable tobacco jars, four unglazed and only semi- 
fired one-quart jugs, several jar lids ranging from 1% to three inches in 
diameter, and two small inkwells. All were unmarked. Only jar lids and 
inkwells were found intact. Even partially reconstructable larger pieces 
were very difficult to recover due to the vast quantity, compacted situation, 
and sameness of salt-glazed material. 

During the same weekend two test pits were dug, Pit 1 near the side- 
walk paralleling Dalhousie Street, and Pit 2 at the northwest corner of the 
site, in the area of probable coal bunkers. Recoveries from Test Pit 1 
included only production wedges, in quantity, all embedded in the surface 
earth fill layer. Beneath and mixed with these was brick rubble and earth, 
with only very occasional salt-glazed sherds. Pit 2 disclosed an unfilled 
space beneath the surface layer, covered by a collapsed brick wall, and 
several heavy wooden beams. Recoveries were nil; the unfilled space, 4'6" 
deep, was empty even of coal; there were no sherds. 

By agreement with Firestone Stores the site was to be left as before, so 
that Trenches 1 and 2 and Test Pits 1 and 2 were closed on December 12. 
Weather had become too unreliable to plan on digging any later in the month. 

During the winter, recoveries from the two-day survey were assessed, 
initial detailed historical research was completed, and schedules were 
correlated with Firestone and their general contractor. New building con- 
struction was originally scheduled to commence March 1, 1967, but was 
ultimately delayed to March 20. Weather was less than ideal, and the 
ground surface at the site was alternately thawing and freezing — frost levels 
during March varied day by day from nil to one foot in depth. 

We commenced further work on March 13. The Mayor of Brantford, 
Mr. R. B. Beckett, had previously offered the services of a city-owned 
backhoe and operator, which we accepted. With only two weeks in which 
to work, a small crew, and ground frost, we decided that excavating major 
trenches with the backhoe would save so much time as to more than justify 
the necessary destruction and loss of whatever it removed. Thus on March 

23 



13 the backhoe dug for us, to a depth of five to six feet, an 80-foot trench 
(Trench 3) parallel to Dalhousie Street and approximately underlying the 
centre of that wing of the 1873-1883 building, and two intersecting trenches 
(6 and 7) running toward Dalhousie Street. 

The backhoe then excavated, parallel to Clarence Street, a second main 
trench (Trench 10) 40 feet long, digging to the north until it reached a 
point of absence of sherds. Test Pit 3 at the north and east edge of the site, 
as expected, had already shown completely negative returns. On March 15 
we again requested the backhoe, to open Side-Trenches 4, 5, 8, and 9, at 
right angles to the Dalhousie Street main trench. 

Test Pit 4, hand-dug in frozen ground, was too close to the railroad 
tracks and underground signal switches for digging by backhoe; this pit 
was excavated to a depth of two feet only. Pits 4a and b, carefully dug as^ 
signpost holes by the building contractors, were five feet deep. 

Areas underlying the two wings of the 1873 building contained heavy 
and compacted concentrations of sherds. In trench walls this concentration 
was restricted to approximately the southwest quadrant of the site, with 
sherds diminishing rapidly in Trench 3 between 65 and 70 feet east of the 
railroad tracks, so that Trenches 7 and 8, and the eastern end of Trench 3, 
were negative except for brick rubble and production saggers and wedges. 
In Trench 10 sherd recoveries ceased abruptly after 30 feet of excavation, 
or 54-55 feet north of the Dalhousie Street sidewalk. 

Though different specific pottery types were concentrated in individual 
areas, the stratigraphy of excavated areas within the approximate outlines 
of the 1873 building was relatively constant (figs. 19-23). The surface 
layer, Level 1 , in all areas was of fill earth varying from six to twelve inches 
in depth. This fill was mixed with scattered brick rubble and sherds. 

The problems of frozen ground and the necessity of beginning with 
machine-opened trenches dictated a somewhat unusual manner of deter- 
mining stratigraphy. Though removal of material in the backhoe trenching 
was, for our purposes, equivalent to destruction, such trenching did allow 
us to work in a reasonably orthodox way, which would not have been pos- 
sible from the surface. First, with minimal cleaning of rubbly and often 
frozen or muddy trench walls, four layers became visually evident in most 
areas (figs. 18, 19, 21, 22). Conditions then required cutting 12 to 18 
inches back into trench walls directly beneath the topmost layer of surface 
fill, the limit of ground frost. We were then able to work vertically, trowel- 
ling down layer by layer, examining and collecting material, and essen- 
tially widening the original trenches. 

The discomforts of trowel work under overhanging frozen ground, 
which continually dripped or flowed icy water and mud during the day and 
occasionally collapsed, were considerable. Facing each morning the prob- 
lem of surfaces, freshly exposed the previous day, which had frozen 
overnight was equally excruciating. 

Six to 12 inches below the surface fill (Level 1) began concentrated 
layers of compacted pottery sherds which extended to four feet below 
surface in all areas and, notably in Trench 10, to five and one-half feet. 
The upper 12 to 18 inches of this layer, Level 2a, included occasional 

24 



pieces, some large, of rotted and charred wood, localized pocket layers of 
charcoal one to three inches in thickness, and a sufficient mixture of 
charcoal with water-settled fill earth to create a dark sub-layer. 

Level 2b, the pottery level below Level 2a, was unchanged in basic 
content — compacted pottery and brick rubble with production wedges, 
saggers, and tiles. In this level, however, pottery was mixed with grey ash 
of thoroughly burned wood, with little or no charcoal or charred wood. 

Given complete historical documentation of the beginning and terminal 
dates of proprietors and of the fires, we were able to rely on marked salt- 
glazed sherds (fig. 4) for the dating of layers. Layers 2a and 2b both 
contained great quantities of W. E. Welding-marked sherds from large 
containers, establishing these layers as post-1872. Thoroughly mixed as it 
was with ash, carbon, and fire rubble, the terminal date of this material and 
of its deposit became obviously the fire of July, 1883. 

The lowest layer of rubble and pottery, Level 3, was materially defined 
by the recovery of quantities of Welding & Belding-marked salt-glazed 
sherds, and occasional earlier Morton and Goold markings, all pre-1872. 
Markings of W. E. Welding were absent. The consistency of Level 3 was 
slightly different from those above, with greater compaction of material, 
and the mixture of less brick rubble, and greater quantities of wedges, ring 
saggers and production pieces, with the compacted pottery. From Level 3, 
as well, only salt-glazed pottery was recovered. There were no Rockingham 
or yellow-glazed sherds, and from this level all but two of the intact, albeit 
unmarked, inkwells were recovered. This material had evidently been 
deposited in the cellar of the original building by the fire of December, 
1872. 

Below Level 3 in all areas began a base layer of undisturbed brown 
sand. This sand level was clearly defined in all areas and contained no 
intrusions. The sand layer had been the floor of the cellar area for the 
building of 1849. It was probably the original surface on all sections of 
the site never previously excavated for construction, since Firestone's 
contractors later encountered it immediately below surface fill or asphalt. 

Sherds in all areas were often coated with a film of carbon soot, which 
could easily be washed or rubbed off. In Levels 2a and 2b, numerous pieces 
of burned and distorted, and occasionally melted, window glass occurred 
both freely and firmly adhering to sherds (fig. 23). In Trenches 3, 4, 5 and 
6 and Test Pit 4, Layers 2a and 2b, sherds of Rockingham and yellow- 
glazed wares were often cemented together by melting of glazes, and glaze 
colours were often distorted, the Rockingham glazes to a dark iridescent 
hue, the yellow glazes to an olive- or grey-green. In no case was the 
external glaze of salt-glazed sherds distorted, though the colour of Albany 
slip lining, used as a wash for internally coating salt-glazed containers and 
usually brown in colour, was often altered to a dark mustard yellow or 
light olive green. Pottery itself, all stoneware, was not distorted in any way. 
Freshly formed pottery, in dry biscuit state, unglazed and semi-fired, was 
found in considerable quantity. This was originally greenware, fired with 
some colour distortion in the burning building, but at a temperature 
insufficient to fuse the raw pottery into hard stoneware. 

25 



In December our initial supposition had been that the cellar holes 
might have been cleared after the fires of 1872 and 1883, with rubble 
being transported to the pottery dump and at some later date, perhaps 
1884, carried back and used as fill. (The pottery dump was probably on 
the original creek bank east of the site, long since filled over.) This theory, 
however, had been quickly dispelled during the concentrated excavations 
in March. It became evident that we were examining neither transported 
fill nor a picture of production over the pottery's entire span, but rather 
had a concentrated view of all the forms and varieties of pottery in pro- 
duction and in stock immediately preceding each of the two fires. There 
was as well, very obviously, a substantial number of earlier Morton and 
Goold pieces in the building in 1872. 

The fire of 1872 burned the first pottery building completely, con- 
suming the wooden frame and dropping all pottery into the cellars. Some of 
this rubble was very likely subsequently cleared, but there was no evidence 
of surfacing, partial filling, or direct flooring to indicate that the cellar was 
ever used again. Rather it seems that the building of 1873 probably had 
a ground-level wooden floor and the earlier cellar, half-filled with remain- 
ing rubble, was left as an air space. 

The fire of 1883, in a brick building, first burned out the wooden 
interior, dropping all stored pottery (much of it certainly on upper floors) 
on top of the earlier rubble. This was followed by collapse of the roof and 
some walls. The greater part of the brick and wood rubble was undoubtedly 
cleared from above the present surface level, for in spite of the quantity of 
brick mixed with the pottery in Levels 2a and 2b, it was not nearly enough 
to represent a partially collapsed building. The fire of 1883 was sufficiently 
hot to distort window glass, melt all but salt glazes, and semi-fire unglazed 
greenware. 

Nothing was recovered from these excavations that postdated 1883. 
The marking brantford / Canada observed on many known later 
moulded wares was entirely absent, as were sherds of any of the moulded 
patterns usually bearing this mark. There was no evidence that the later 
marked green- and blue-glazed wares or other later forms were in produc- 
tion in 1883. These wares are separately covered in section four. 

Though all trenches were closed on March 22, two days after excava- 
tions had begun for the new Firestone Stores building, during the following 
month we constantly and closely examined contractors' foundation excava- 
tions, all of which were in areas of the site we had not examined. In the 
contractors' earlier excavations, through the asphalt-covered parking lot 
to the east, results were entirely negative, and showed only that the brown 
sand base layer began immediately beneath the asphalt. Small and isolated 
individual sherds of post-1883 green-glazed wares were occasionally found 
on the original surface. 

At the extreme northeast corner of the asphalted area the contractors 
unearthed sizable slabs of unknown material, thinly layered and occurring 
in two colours, a deep leaf green and a light cinnamon red. The initial 
assumption was that these might be raw glaze oxides, ready for grinding 
into fine powder. 

26 



Qualitative analysis by the r.o.m. Conservation Department has 
shown that these slabs were, in fact, discarded glaze mixtures which had 
been poured out and eventually hardened. The colouring agent of the green 
sections was copper oxide and of the cinnamon-red slabs, lead oxide. 
Samples analyzed of both colours also contained carbonates, silica, calcium, 
and an organic additive, probably the gum arabic binder used in virtually 
all glazes. 

In excavations about mid-April, extending into the earth-filled site 
(contractor's trench on the ground plan), the general layer of compacted 
pottery was encountered only in that area of the north-south excavation 
parallel to Trench 10, by then closed. No new information resulted. As 
had been indicated by Test Pit 5 to the north, this area of the site had not 
been previously excavated for cellars, and was composed of brown sand 
throughout. 

The southern wing of the contractor's east-west excavations, at approxi- 
mately the centre of the site, cut through a kiln floor footed in sand, with 
the top surface three inches below the site surface level. This kiln, either 
from the 1873-83 period and/or possibly the 1884-1906 pottery, was in 
the pottery yard. The base of the kiln was composed of brick, laid flat in 
opposite directions in successive layers, eleven courses thick to a depth of 
three feet below surface. The top three courses were yellow fire-brick; the 
eight courses beneath were common earth or shale brick. 

In the absence of early ground plans, kiln positions have not been 
precisely established. All were, however, built at surface level, with a 
minimum of excavation, and detached from buildings. No bases or remains 
were apparent at present surface level, and most had undoubtedly been 
previously removed; in any event there was insufficient time for a search. 

Though the progression and production of the Brantford pottery from 
its beginning to 1883 was completely established by these excavations, the 
probable area of the pottery dump has not been excavated. As previously 
mentioned, the creek banks to the east have been deeply filled beyond the 
retaining walls through which the stream now flows, and a private residence 
now occupies the southern part of this filled area. Thus the dump site is 
not clear for excavation, nor is it likely to become so in the foreseeable 
future. 



27 






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28 







Fig. 11 The pottery site, December 10, 1966, southwest area. Dalhousie Street is 
to the left, the railroad tracks and Clarence Street to the right. 



Fie. 12 The same. 







29 




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31 




Fig. 13 Pit 4, in the southwest corner 
of the site, dug in frozen ground, 
March, 1967. 



32 



i 

i 




Fig. 14 Small jars for tobacco, sugar, or spices, all unmarked, were found at all 
levels of excavation. These three, the right and left pieces brown slip-coated (Trench 
2), the centre jar salt-glazed (Trench 1), are from the period 1873-83 (Welding — 
Level 2b). 




<«?'• 








Fig. 1 5 Flat jar lids of varied sizes, 
both brown slip-coated and salt-glazed, 
occurred in quantity at all levels. 
The two smallest lids (lower left) are 
for wide-mouthed bottles or tall jars 
(fig. 24, a). The next four in size are 
for low jars (fig. 14), and the largest 
for salt-glazed jars of one to three 
gallons capacity. 



33 



if W 







b 



": 






\ 



<t. 



,;* 






:,- 



u 






»v" 



:h 




Fig. 16 Production pieces, all roughly hand-formed of stoneware clay with maximum 

content of added sand, occurred in great quantity. 

a large-ring base tiles (saggers), sectional or broken 

b small-ring base tiles (saggers) 

c hand-formed concavities, purpose not established 

d flat elongated base or rim tiles 

e flat disc rim tiles 

f base stilts for heavy vessels 

g cross-support wedges 

h salt-glazed jug top, with elongated tile fragment adhering 



34 




Fig. 17 Utilization of production 
pieces, fig. 16. 

For firing, stoneware vessels were 
stacked in the kiln base-to-base and 
rim-to-rim, the lowest in a stack 
being base down. Stacked in this 
manner, bases, rims, and insides of 
vessels were not exposed to salt 
glazing. 

Such a stack required separators and 
additional support, provided by ring 
or sectional base tiles (saggers) on 
which the stack was based (a), flat 
elongated or disc tiles (b) between the 
necks of jugs or bottles, and wedges 
(c) at two or three points on each 
vessel to separate the vertical stacks. 



&fi ^^oTnyjfir/^^o^?^ 



35 



2a 



Fig. 18 Compacted pottery , Trench 

3, north wall, 65 feet east of railroad 

tracks. 

Scale, one-foot graduations 



2b 






- 



/ \ '^ - ■ ■-,,, :.,. • 



Fig. 19 Trench 3, south wall, 50 
feet east of railroad tracks. 
Eighteen-inch scale 



36 




Feet 



1 -- 




^Si- 



4 -- 



5 -" 







Concrete slab, removed before 
excavations. 

1 Surface; earth fill, brick rubble, 
occasional pottery. 

2a Compacted pottery, brick rubble, 
carbon pockets, charred wood. (1883 
fire) 



2b Compacted pottery, white wood 
ash, less brick rubble. (1883 fire) 



3 Compacted pottery, pre-1872 
marked sherds, inkwells, production 
pieces, little brick rubble. (1872 fire) 

4 Undisturbed brown sand 



Fig. 20 Profile, south wall of Trench 
3, at Trench 5. This profile indicates, 
with variations in the relative thick- 
ness of sub-levels, the approximate 
underground configuration of all 
excavated areas. Level 3 was often 
discernible only by artifacts, not 
visually. 



37 




Level 



Fig. 2 1 Trench 3, south wall, at 
intersection of Trench 6, showing 
levels of fire rubble. 



Level 




*** *** , «% -. 



Fig. 22 Compacted pottery in Level 2a, Trench 3 at intersection of Trench 6. 
Level 2a excavated to 2b. Eighteen-inch scale. 




Fig. 23 As well as re-melted yellow and Rockingham glazes, distorted and melted 
window glass occurred frequently (Levels 2a and 2b), both freely and adhering to 
sherds, however glazed. In occasional cases, as the top-centre piece, sherds were 
cemented together by glass, and numerous sherds had glass adhering to fractured 
edges. In the 1883 fire considerable pottery was probably broken prior to actual 
structural collapse of the building. 



39 



Fig. 24 Rim profiles, type 1, necked 

vessels. 

a bottle/tall jar, wide-mouthed, 

covered 

b bottle, one pint/one quart 

c bottle/small handled jug, one- or 

two-quart 

d, e, g handled jugs, half-gallon to 

six-gallon 

f pouring spout, handled syrup jug, 

one- to three-gallon 

All vessels generally salt-glazed, less 

commonly brown. 




H 1 1 1 




Fig. 25 One-quart jugs, handles lacking, unmarked and unglazed, semi-fired by the 
burning of the pottery, 1883 (Trench 1). 



40 



Ill Excavation Recoveries 



The Brantford pottery was, at least through the period covered by the 
excavations, primarily a producer of salt-glazed stoneware containers for 
both household and commercial use. During the later (c. 1875-1883) 
period, Rockingham and yellow-glazed moulded and cast household wares 
became an increasingly important secondary form, and were probably the 
primary products between 1883 and 1906. 

The pottery between its founding in 1849 and the fire of 1872, as 
represented by sherd Level 3 throughout the excavations, produced only 
container wares, largely crocks, jugs, jars and churns, in standard capacities 
of from half-gallon to six or seven gallons. Such larger pieces were 
invariably salt-glazed and often decorated externally with cobalt-blue 
designs, and lined or washed internally with brown Albany slip. The salt- 
glazed containers, following universal practice, were with few exceptions 
stamped with either the name of the pottery proprietor or, on special order, 
an individual merchant's or quantity purchaser's mark. 

Smaller articles, such as tobacco or sugar jars, inkwells, bottles, and 
special miniature pieces, while also most typically salt-glazed, were in lieu 
of salt-glazing commonly given an overall wash of brown Albany slip. 
Smaller pieces, too, were only occasionally marked — apparently they were 
considered less important than the standard containers. 

There was no evidence, from the excavations, of production before 
1872 of any but salt-glazed or slip-washed containers, all wheel-thrown 
and essentially hand-made. External evidence, from existing intact pieces 
in various collections, has not yet indicated volume-production pottery 
other than container wares assignable to this period. One known brown 
slip-coated picture frame, signed G. Beech and dated at Brantford in April, 
1862, indicates that moulded wares were done experimentally in the Goold 
period, and perhaps even earlier, but apparently as individual pieces. (See 
Collard, Nineteenth Century Pottery and Porcelain in Canada.) 

As in all potteries, non-typical articles were occasionally produced, 
sometimes in quantity to fill a special order, but often as individual pieces 
made as apprentice's or potter's exercises, as gifts, for personal use, or 
some other reason. From Level 2c was recovered one miniature bottle with 
pinched sides (fig. 27), evidently just such an individual product. The most 
surprising recovery was a quantity of small and plain inkwells, salt-glazed 
outside with an internal slip wash (fig. 26). The salt-glazing (done only 
with a full kiln) indicates quantity production, yet the inkwells were 
unmarked and far less elaborate than those known from other stoneware 
potteries. Compact, durable, and of small capacity, they may well have 
been manufactured for student use in schools. The inkwells were evidently 
in use in the pottery as well, for of over 20 recovered intact, most in 
Level 3, sixteen were found individually throughout the heavily compacted 
areas of Trenches 3 and 10; four were found as two pairs (one pair in 
Level 2a, Trench 1). The small quantity and individual occurrence indi- 
cates the inkwells were not stocked items at the time of either fire. 

41 



Throughout all sub-levels within the strata of compacted pottery, and 
in all areas except Pit 4 and Trench 4, salt-glazed wares were by far the 
predominant form. Recovery of reconstructable examples of larger vessels 
was impossible in a situation where concentrated sherds could easily have 
been removed by the cubic yard or the ton, and pointless in dealing with 
container types and forms already well known. 

Thus, except in dealing with the more unusual pieces, selection of 
salt-glazed material for analysis was purposely limited to markings and rim 
samples, both available in great quantity and, because of the location of 
stoneware markings on vessels, often coincident. Markings recovered 
included, from Level 3, those of Morton, Goold, and Welding & Belding 
alone (fig. 4). No sherds were found with stamps of Morton & Bennett, 
Morton & Goold, or Brantford Stoneware Works (Goold). As would be 
expected, Welding & Belding markings were in the great majority here. 

Rimsherds were classified into five profile types, all of which are 
illustrated (figs. 24, 28). Even within the pottery and on otherwise identical 
vessel forms, there was considerable minor variation in rims of the same 
type, formed as they were with wooden ribs applied to the clay in different 
positions by different individuals. 

(In any analysis of North American stoneware, it must be remembered 
that after about 1820 relatively standard basic vessel forms and rim types, 
with regional differences, were in production by many different potteries at 
any given time. In identifying unmarked pieces or fragmentary archaeologi- 
cal artifacts, only stamped markings or definite and well-established 
decorative characteristics can be accepted as definitive. Within various 
large geographical regions, rim profiles and/or vessel cross-sections were 
too generally similar throughout the industry, yet too varied in minor 
characteristics even within the same pottery, to be considered reliable 
evidence for any conclusion more precise than establishment of regional 
provenance and approximate dating. ) 

Sherds at all levels indicated that many containers, particularly the 
larger sizes, had been decorated externally with generally simple designs 
in cobalt-oxide blue glaze (figs. 1, 2, 3, 9). Most such decorations were 
brushed-on floral motifs or other basic designs, following the universal 
practice of stoneware potteries throughout Canada and the north-eastern 
United States. 

Decorations on vessels produced during the proprietorship of F. P. 
Goold, however, were occasionally much more imaginative and elaborate, 
including designs incised in formed but unfired clay rather than painted on 
the surface (figs. 5, 6). Time-consuming incised decorating of stoneware 
was most common in North America during the 1810-1840 period and, 
except for rare instances, had largely given way to easier and faster surface- 
painted designs by 1850. Goold-period glaze-painted designs were some- 
times quite unusual; one known piece bears a cow stencilled in outline 
(fig. 7), and another a duck floating on water. 

After 1872, W. E. Welding continued to produce stoneware and brown 
containers in the same forms and styles as previously, without significant 
change except markings. All Welding blue-glazed decorations were quite 

42 



simple and basic, and no evidence was found of incised decorating having 
been continued during this period. 

No decorations — incising or painting — have been found on Brantford 
salt-glazed stonewares, from the excavations or in collections, to be either 
sufficiently numerous or sufficiently characteristic of this pottery alone in 
subject or style to offer reliable evidence for attribution of other unmarked 
or fragmentary pieces. 

Salt-glazed sherds, evenly and heavily distributed throughout the exca- 
vations, with the exception of Trench 4 and Pit 4, indicate that salt-glazed 
wares were stored in nearly all parts of the building in 1883. The sherd 
quantity, in spite of being almost entirely from large and heavy rather than 
light vessels, would imply that at the time of the fire salt-glazed containers 
still comprised not less than 75 per cent of the pottery's total output. 

It was pottery forms other than salt-glazed containers, however, that 
proved to be most important. Moulded and slip-cast patterned sherds, 
Rockingham and yellow-glazed, were concentrated in and confined to 
limited areas of the site — Pits 4, 4a and 4b, Trench 4, some areas of 
Trench 5, and Trench 6. These sherd concentrations established numerous 
forms of previously unknown household wares, as well as the degree of 
mechanical as opposed to hand production as of 1883. 

Press-moulding of rolled sheets of clay between upper and lower 
moulds, usually to form bowls and dishes, was probably introduced in the 
pottery well before the more complex technique of slip-casting, and sherds 
of relatively simple press-moulded pieces were found in quantity. Included 
were the only yellow-glazed wares, small bowls in two forms (figs. 31, 32, 
33, 34, 37, 38) decorated with horizontal white and/or brown overglazed 
lines. These sherds occurred in concentrated and compacted form primarily 
in Trench 6, Levels 2a and b. The bowls were certainly a product of both 
mould and wheel, being first press-moulded, then hand-finished on a wheel, 
then glazed and semi-fired. Finally the horizontal lines were added, and 
the pieces completely fired. 

The greatest quantity of Rockingham-glazed, press-moulded ware was 
confined to pie plates, serving dishes, milk pans, and baking dishes, con- 
centrated at the intersection of Trenches 3 and 6, and for 20 feet to the 
west in the south wall of Trench 6, all in Levels 2a and b. The press- 
moulded pieces with straight sides and rims were all undecorated, and were 
mixed with sherds of at least partially wheel-made pieces with everted rims 
(figs. 35, 36). While all partial reconstructions were of round pans or 
dishes, there is little doubt that oval or elongated pieces were also produced. 

Though the technique had been used for centuries, such basic press- 
moulded pieces apparently represent the Brantford pottery's first venture, 
in the mid- 1870s, into any form of mechanical production. 

Other bowl forms, like most decorative-patterned pieces, seem to have 
been slip-cast, by pouring semi-liquid and thoroughly refined clay into 
four- or eight-section plaster-of-Paris moulds. Sherds of patterned bowls 
occurred in far smaller quantity than plain press-moulded types, but in the 
same areas. One form (figs. 32c, 40) was found as only occasional yellow- 
glazed sherds (Trench 6, Levels 2a and b), though identical intact pieces, 

43 



Rockingham-glazed, have been acquired since. Another pattern (figs. 32d, 
41) was found in greater quantity, all sherds Rockingham-glazed (Trench 
4, Pits 4, 4a and b). 

It is interesting to note that, except for one yellow-glazed sherd of a 
larger version of a patterned bowl (figs. 32c, 40) and several sherds of an 
unusual wheel-turned yellow-glazed bowl (figs. 37, 38), no bowls what- 
soever were found in larger or kitchen/utility sizes. It is impossible to 
imagine that the pottery was not making such pieces; but it is evident that 
a very small stock, if any, was in the pottery at the time of the 1883 fire. 

Before the popularity of cigarettes, pottery spittoons were the ash-trays 
of a cigar and pipe-smoking age. In the late 19th century virtually every 
pottery in North America made spittoons. The Brantford pottery in the 
early 1880s was manufacturing at least four patterns, all slip-cast and 
Rockingham-glazed, two of which were recovered in quantity during 
excavations (Trench 3, 4, Levels 2a, b). Most numerous in terms of sherd 
quantities was a spittoon with a pattern of shells in relief (figs. 42, 43), 
generally Rockingham-glazed. Many sherds were unglazed and semi-fired. 
Others, grossly colour-distorted by the fire of 1883, may have been brown 
slip-coated (visually it is impossible to distinguish absolutely brown Albany 
slip from fire-distorted Rockingham glazes ) . 

Another form, recovered in quantity in the same area, was a straight- 
sided, slightly trapezoidal, slip-cast spittoon with a vertical bamboo pattern 
(figs. 44, 45). All sherds were Rockingham or light brown glazed, and 
were mixed with shell spittoon pieces. 

Two other spittoon forms, with similar patterns, were recovered as 
isolated sherds (fig. 46), both evidently small straight-sided pieces, one 
with panelled sides and both with rope-banded rims. Sherds were not 
reconstructable. 

Of all the forms of moulded-wares discovered, pitchers, with a single 
exception, were the most confusing. By far the most common type, in 
terms of sherd quantity, was a small Rockingham-glazed milk or cream 
pitcher, slip-cast with a simple pattern of twigs or branches with flower 
buds on each side (figs. 48a, 49g) (Pit 4, Level 2a). Other sherds, scat- 
tered (Pits 4, 4a and b, Trench 4, Levels 2a and b) and not reconstruct- 
able, represented at least two larger pitcher forms and possibly four cast 
patterns. Pitchers were evidently stored in an area of intense heat during 
the fire of 1883, for sherd glazes were often distorted to the point of making 
identification tenuous and indistinct cast patterns unrecognizable. Such 
sherds were sufficiently coherent in form for approximate reconstruction 
by drawings, though, except for fig. 48b (and 50), not for pattern deter- 
mination. The two large pitcher forms were certainly stocked as individual 
units and not as ewer and basin sets; no evidence was found of correspond- 
ing bowls. 

Occasional fragments were found of large wheel-turned salt-glazed 
pitchers (fig. 49a), a standard manufacture of every stoneware pottery. 
Most such pitchers were marked in the manner usual with large salt-glazed 
containers: the maker's stamp and capacity impressed and blue-glazed 
below the lip. 

44 



Perhaps the most important recovery from the excavation proved to be 
sherds, in quantity, of two slip-cast, Rockingham-glazed teapots (Trench 
4, Pits 4, 4a and b, Levels 2a and b) . One form bore on each side a sharply 
cast pattern in relief, of a recumbent beaver below sprigs of maple leaves, 
and had a locking lid with a finial in the form of a complete moulded beaver 
(figs. 51, 52, 53). Sherds recovered indicated only one basic size of teapot, 
though rim diameters probably varied depending on the particular mould 
from which each piece was cast. Over forty lids were recovered intact or 
with only minor damage, with minor variations in diameter. Glaze colora- 
tion on both sherds and intact lids ranged from light yellow-brown to near- 
black, the result of fire distortion. 

A variant form of the beaver-pattern teapot acquired since the excava- 
tions, though heavier and clumsier in its proportions, is obviously extremely 
close to the excavated form. Its lid is both flatter and wider and has a 
more rudimentary moulded beaver finial. Neither excavated sherds and an 
identical intact example, nor the variant, is marked. The most logical 
assessment seems to be that the variant is an early form of this pattern and 
one no longer current in 1883. 

The second patterned teapot found bears in relief the classical scene 
of Rebecca-at-the-Well on each side, and is panel-sided rather than round 
(figs. 54, 55, 56). As well as sherds in quantity (Trench 4, Pits 4, 4a and b, 
Levels 2a and b), thirty-six intact or slightly damaged lids, with plain 
panel-sided finials, were recovered. This teapot was manufactured in at least 
two sizes, indicated by both sherds and lids and by intact examples, like the 
beaver pattern in several moulds. The actual pattern size is identical on 
both teapot sizes, the pattern simply occupying a greater proportion of sur- 
face area on the smaller piece. 

The beaver pattern is unique to the Brantford pottery so far as can be 
established. The Rebecca pattern, in many variations, was also produced at 
the Farrar pottery at St. Johns, Quebec, and at a number of potteries in 
New Jersey, New York, and Ohio. The Brantford version, however, is suf- 
ficiently characteristic for ready identification. 

Moulded decorative figures were produced by most potteries at one 
time or another, both in red earthenware and stoneware. Certainly the most 
universally popular form was a seated dog, directly derivative of earlier 
Staffordshire pieces though rarely of equal quality. Stoneware dog figures 
were made sometimes as solid figures intended as doorstops, as hollow but 
sealed purely decorative pieces, or as hollow coin banks with a slot in the 
base or head. Two sherds from the excavations, both of the heads of seated 
dogs (figs. 57, 58), one salt-glazed, the other Rockingham-glazed, indicate 
occasional fabrication of this ubiquitous form. No other moulded figures 
were apparent. Two intact pieces presently existing in Brantford are reputed 
through family histories, and with no cause for doubt, to have been made 
in the pottery during the late Welding period, and probably after the 1883 
fire. 

Forms which probably reached their height of production in the period 
after the fire of 1883 were recovered in the excavations only as isolated 
sherds. The Brantford pottery has long been well known for its picture 

45 



frames, Rockingham-glazed and probably open-mould cast, of which several 
examples are known to exist (fig. 59). Sherds recovered (fig. 60) of pre- 
1883 frames (Trench 4, Levels 2a and b) are relatively simple in pattern, 
and the absence of elaborately patterned sherds probably indicates the 
post-1883 manufacture of elaborate examples. No picture-frame sherds 
were found in Level 3, although intact pre-1872 examples are known. 

Another of the few moulded or cast forms which are known to have 
been re-established in production after the 1883 fire was a simple straight- 
sided pitcher, rounded and reeded into the base, and with reed-banded 
rim (figs. 61, 62). Only isolated sherds appeared in excavations, all 
unglazed, unmarked, and semi-fired by the fire, indicating probably that 
this pitcher was in manufacture but not in stock. 

Later examples, some marked brantford/canada on the base, are 
commonly found with green, green and blue, or pinkish glazes. Since no 
examples of coloured glazes, other than the Rockingham brown over 
yellow, were found during excavations, it is most unlikely that this pitcher 
would have been otherwise glazed as early as 1883. 

Though less significant than the salt-glazed and other moulded and 
cast wares, flowerpots in many variations seem to have been a staple pro- 
duct of the Brantford pottery (figs. 63, 64). Earlier versions, generally 
pieces with integral saucers, were wheel-turned, but most pieces seem to 
have been press-formed. In all patterns, from sherd quantities, integral 
saucer types were far more common than basic pots with separate saucers. 
Moulded patterns were restricted to reeded pot and saucer sides, with pie- 
crust and dentil banded rims. No flowerpots were found with a true glaze, 
but most were coated with brown slip, either as a complete covering out- 
side with no coating inside, or by rim dipping which coated the top third 
to half both outside and inside. Though the typical piece was unmarked, 
occasional sherds were found in Level 2 stamped w. e. welding below the 
rim (Trenches 3, 5, 6, 10, Levels 2a and 2b, 3). 

Isolated sherds were found of everted and rolled rim jardinieres, prob- 
ably wheel-turned, and of hanging flower vases which were mounted 
probably in wire frames with separate saucers. 

The excavations established, most particularly, the great majority of 
the previously unknown press-moulded and slip-cast wares of the Brant- 
ford pottery manufactured between c. 1875-1883. Occasional patterned 
sherds (fig. 47) and a few other isolated single fragments, however, indi- 
cate that at one time or another forms and patterns were very likely 
produced which so far defy identification and which cannot be established 
from the excavation recoveries alone. 



46 




Fig. 26 Intact small and simple salt-glazed inkwells, intended probably for school 
use, occurred singly or in pairs throughout the excavations (Level 2), but without 
concentration and in insufficient quantity to suggest a large stock at the time of the 
fire of 1872. 



Fig. 27 Only one miniature special 
or individual piece was recovered 
from excavations (Trench 3, Level 3), 
this early unmarked salt-glazed bottle 
with pinched sides. Such pieces were 
probably made relatively often, but 
few would have been in the pottery at 
any given time. 




47 



Rim profiles, type 2, open containers, single rib 

1)111111 

■ ■ * ■ i i -^^^*-' 



— — - — i 1 

1 inch 



Rim profiles, type 3, open containers, double rib 

urn 



11 



■♦ — t— » — i 1 i 



Rim profiles, type 4, open containers, square end and everted rib 

17**7 

•^*^ i i i i 



I ^—. — : 1 1 



Rim profiles, type 5, covered containers 




fr, 

inch I — I 1 »— | > I 



Fig. 28 Rim profiles, salt-glazed open and covered containers. 







Fig. 29 L/£e racw/ larger potteries 
employing travelling salesmen, 
Brantford from time to time produced 
miniature samples — precise replicas of 
larger stock items. No sherds of such 
samples were recovered from 
excavations. 

On the left is a covered jar, 3% inches 
high, a sample of production pieces 
of one- to five-gallon capacity. The 
marking, brantford / stone- 
ware, did not occur on any 
excavated sherds or separately 
observed pieces, and may be a version 
of Goold's "Brantford Stoneware 
Works." 
Private collection 



Fig. 30 At right is a batter pitcher, 
3V2 inches high, marked w. e. welding 
/ Brantford, Ont. It is a precise 
miniature, with sheet-iron cover and 
wire bail loop of standard one- to 
three-gallon pieces. 
Private collection 




49 




Fig. 31 Eight white and brown 
banding patterns have been isolated 
for small yellow-glazed bowls, seven 
shown here and one (of two bands of 
four lines each) on the reconstructed 
straight-sided bowl (fig. 32, b). Only 
occasional sherds of heavy-rimmed 
bowls (third left) were found. 




m 




Fig. 32 Profiles, bowl types (Weld- 
ing, c. 1883) 

a wheel-turned, yellow-glazed, white 
and/or brown banded 
b same 

c press-moulded, pattern in relief, 
yellow- or Rockingham-glazed 
d press-moulded, pattern in relief, 
Rockingham-glazed 



50 




Fig. 33 Small yellow-glazed bowls, with white or mixed white and brown horizontal 
bands, were densely concentrated in the area where Trenches 3 and 6, Levels 2a and 
2b (Welding) intersected. All unmarked, the bowls occurred in two basic forms 
(shown above) and several sizes, the largest six inches in rim diameter. 



Fig. 34 Reconstructed small yellow-glazed bowls. 




51 



Fig. 35 Deep-rimmed milk-skimming 
pans and shallower pie plates were 
produced in a number of forms, all 
unmarked and Rockingham-glazed, 
and from eight to approximately 
twelve inches in base diameter. 
Pieces with everted rims were wheel- 
turned, and probably represent 
Welding's earliest Rockingham-glazed 
work (from c. 1875). Straight rimmed 
pans were press-moulded, without 
evident decorative patterns. 





Fig. 36 Rim-to-base sections, press-moulded and Rockingham-glazed milk pans. 
Sherds in great quantity were concentrated and tightly compacted (Trench 3, south only, 
Trench 6, Level 2a). 



52 







Fig. 37 One yellow-glazed and 
rimmed bowl (Trench 6, Level 2b) 
with white and brown horizontal 
bands showed blue blotted decoration 
within the wide white band, in the 
style of 19th-century English mocha- 
ware. 




Fig. 38 Large yellow-glazed utility bowls (intact examples represented here) were 
decorated over the white bands with cobalt-oxide glaze diffused most probably with 
a drop of turpentine. Bowls of this type from Brantford are the only mocha-wares in 
the English manner known to have been produced in Canada. 
Black Creek Pioneer Village 



53 



:'/;M"***>»..x- 



Lt 







Fig. 39 Occasional sherds of 
stoneware tiles (Trench 3, Level 2a 
and 2b), press-moulded and 
under-glazed in blue before firing and 
salt-glazing, indicate only periodic 
production. 



54 









' 








Fig. 40 Press-moulded, relief-patterned bowls were recovered in varying quantities. 
Of the apparent patterns, the one shown (found only occasionally) was a banded rim 
above a beaded band, with pointed moulding below (see fig. 32, c). All sherds 
recovered were yellow-glazed and indicated three bowl sizes. Identical Rockingham- 
glazed pieces have been observed since, none marked. 
Bowl on right, Canadiana, r.o.m. 




Fig. 41 Sherds of press-moulded raised ribbed and panelled bowls, recovered in 
quantity, were all Rockingham-glazed and unmarked (see fig. 22, d). No identical 
intact pieces have yet been located. 



55 




1 "' • ' 



SSjL 





Fig. 42 Spittoon sherds of several 
slip-cast patterns (Trench 3 and 4, 
Levels 2a and 2 b) occurred in 
concentrations. In greatest quantity 
was a pattern with shells in relief, 
separated by small round escutcheons, 
around the top-side, a vertically 
scored base-side, and radially fluted 
core. 

All sherds were Rockingham-glazed, 
many with colour distortion, with the 
exception of occasional unglazed 
fragments semi-fired by the 1883 fire. 




m wm M wTwm ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ 



Fig. 43 Slip-cast and Rockingham-glazed shell-patterned spittoons, all unmarked, 
have been located in some quantity in various collections since the completion of 
excavations. 
Canadiana, r.o.m. 



56 




Fig. 44 Another important slip-cast 
spittoon, though found in lesser sherd 
quantities than the shell type, had 
straight slightly sloping sides in a 
pattern of vertical bamboo sticks in 
relief (Trench 4, Levels 2a and 2b). 
All sherds were Rockingham-glazed, 
and many were colour-distorted. 



Fig. 45 An intact example of the Q 

bamboo-pattern spittoon, 
Rockingham-glazed and unmarked. 
Canadiana, r.o.m. 




57 




Fig. 46 Two other slip-cast spittoon forms, probably not in production in 1883, were 
found only as isolated sherds (Trench 4, Level 2b). That in row a had straight sides 
with flat panels, a rope-banded rim, and recessed side. The two sherds in row b 
represent the side-rim and core-rim of a similar but not identical piece. Sides are 
lacking. 






Fig. 47 Occasional isolated sherds of slip-cast pieces indicate so far unidentified 
patterns and objects almost certainly not in stock or production in 1883. The fragment 
to the left bears a jumping deer in relief, and that to the right the fore-half of a deer 
or rabbit. 



58 




Fig. 48 Three pitcher forms, each established from numerous sherd recoveries, were 

reconstruct able only by drawing. All sherds were extremely compacted with sufficient 

colour distortion to make some glaze identification tenuous (Trench 4, Levels 2a 

and 2b). 

a Cream pitcher, slip-cast, Rockingham-glazed , with pattern of twigs with buds in 

relief. Sherds in quantity. 

b Milk or water pitcher, slip-cast, Rockingham-glazed or brown-slip washed, pattern 

of strawberry flower in relief. Sherds common. 

c Milk or water pitcher, slip-cast, apparent brown-slip wash, pattern very dulled 

and not discernible. Sherds uncommon. 

Other pitcher forms, represented only by isolated sherds, could not be established nor 

patterns (if any) determined. 



59 







Fig. 49 Pitcher lip sherds, not 
numerous in any form, represent: 
a wheel-turned, salt-glazed, two- 
gallon, with Welding mark. This 
pitcher type was common to all 
stoneware potteries. 
b, c slip-cast Rockingham-glazed, 
probably fig. 48, b. 
d slip-cast, not correlated, possible 
variant of b and c. 
e slip-cast, brown slip-washed 
probably fig. 48, c. 
f slip-cast, Rockingham-glazed with 
high over glaze, probably post-1883. 
g slip-cast, Rockingham-glazed, 
fig- 49, a. 



60 




Fig. 50 This unmarked Rockingham- 
glazed pitcher, with a moulded 
pattern of strawberry flowers in relief, 
is an intact example of one of several 
pitcher types represented by quantities 
of unreconstructable sherds (figs. 48, 
b; 49, b, c, d). Extant examples of 
other forms have not been 
encountered. 
Canadiana, r.o.m. 



61 




Fig. 51 W. E. Welding in 1883 was producing two styles of slip-cast teapots, both 
unmarked, most importantly a Rockingham-glazed beaver and maple leaf pattern in 
two sizes. This was evidently in stock in quantity at the time of the 1883 fire, and 
sherds were extremely concentrated and compacted (Pits 4, 4a and 4b, Trench 4, 
Levels 2a and 2b). 




62 




" r %- - * Astern- 



Fig. 52 This teapot, unmarked, 
conforms completely to excavated 
sherds. The beaver and maple leaf 
pattern, though well-known, had not 
previously been dated or reliably 
attributed. 
Private collection 



Fig. 53 A variant form, the 
unmarked beaver and maple leaf 
teapot here does not conform to any 
excavated sherds or lids, though the 
piece as a whole is remarkably 
similar. While it could be a style of 
the post-1883 period, its relative 
heaviness and clumsiness suggest it 
is an earlier Welding version (c. 
1875-c. 1880) and a predecessor of 
the excavated form. 
Canadiana, R.o.M. 



63 




A ***>- 

* 




Fig. 55 Complete examples; this teapot is the 
larger of two sizes, and from sherd quantities 
quite the most common. Private collection 




Fig. 54 The second slip-cast teapot 
current in 1883 was a panel-sided, 
Rockingham-glazed piece with the 
classic Rebecca-at-the-W ell pattern. 
Sherd quantities suggest a production 
at the time of the fire of fewer 
Rebecca than Beaver types. Sherds 
and complete lids of both patterns 
occurred together and mixed (Trench 
4, Pits 4, 4a and 4b, Level 2a and 2b). 



Fig. 56 A smaller version (equipped 
with an excavated lid) from a different 
mould but with a pattern size identical 
with the larger piece (fig. 55). 
Private collection 



64 




Fig. 57 The only moulded figures 
confirmed for the Brantford Pottery 
were sitting dogs, derivative of earlier 
Staffordshire figures. 
Only two sherds, both of faces, were 
recovered. The one shown is 
salt-glazed with spots of light blue 
underglaze (Trench J); the other, 
more fragmentary, came from a 
different mould and was Rockingham- 
glazed (Trench 4, Level 2b). 



Fig. 58 Moulded dogs, as well as 
other figures, were a standard product 
of most large North American 
stoneware potteries, and of occasional 
earthenware potters as well. 
This piece, finished in an orange- 
brown glaze, is reputed without cause 
for doubt to be a Brantford product 
during the late Welding period. 
Private collection 




65 




Fig. 59 Picture-frame, moulded or slip-cast, unmarked, Rockingham-glazed. This 
frame, far more elaborate in pattern than excavated sherds, is probably of the post- 
1883 Welding period. 
Paris (Ont.) Free Library 





'" ' ' 



iftjfc JSitK 



m I m 





O 'A Yk *A i 



Fig. 60 Sherds recovered (Trench 4, 
Levels 2a and 2b) show three basic 
patterns of moulded picture frames, 
all Rockingham-glazed and of the 
1873-1883 period. The small number 
of sherds would indicate very limited 
manufacture. 



66 




' 





O — 




Fig. 61 As represented by this unglazed and semi-fired base, small reeded straight- 
sided pitchers were in production prior to the 1883 fire. This form, most common 
later, is the only individual pattern known to have survived the fire. 




Fig. 62 Pitchers identical to the unglazed base above, these are glazed in greens, 
blues, and red-browns, made in the late 1880s or early 1900s. None are marked. 
Private collection 



67 





Fig. 63 Flowerpots, both hand- 
turned and machine-moulded, were 
recovered in several varieties (Trench 
3, Level 2a and 2b, 3), the majority 
being integral pots and saucers. At 
left centre is a rim section of a 
jardiniere, and at top centre and right 
centre conical base sections of hanging 
flowerpots. 



Fig. 64 This piece, wheel-turned, is 
unglazed except for the rim, which 
was dipped in brown slip. The pot 
and saucer are a single unit. Welding 
period, c. 1875-1883. 
Private collection 



jf rz 



IV Assessments and Recapitulation 

Focusing on the remains and rubble left by two destructive fires, the excava- 
tions essentially revealed the workings and products of the pottery at two 
precisely established moments. No analysis of recoveries alone could be 
construed to represent a complete and balanced view of the entire span of 
operation. From the overall nature of the artifacts, however, we can only 
conclude that fire remains in 1872 and 1883 included not only con- 
centrations of fragmented current production and inventory, but also 
scatterings of items produced quite some time previously. Thus the entire 
scope of operation at least becomes clearly defined. 

The excavation artifacts by themselves, however, in this case were 
hardly sufficient for any truly reliable general assessments. Since the com- 
pletion of excavations, an intensive search has been carried on in private 
collections and among dealers for intact pieces to compare with excavated 
recoveries. Fortunately, many Brantford pieces are extant, and have been 
made available for observation and photography. Several pieces as well 
have been acquired for the collections in the Canadiana Department, Royal 
Ontario Museum. Through established dating of excavated levels and corre- 
lation of recoveries with existing pieces, and always with the benefit of a 
relatively complete historical and documentary picture, it has been possible 
to present relatively positive definitions and precise datings of various 
forms. 

Throughout the report, references have been made to rough production 
quantities of different pieces based on sherd quantities. These references 
must be interpreted in a unit and not a comparative sense — concentrations 
of sherds of any particular form indicate only that that form was in heavy 
stock and had presumably been made shortly before one of the fires. 
Conversely, we can be sure that forms found only as scattered or isolated 
sherds were not in production and/or stock immediately prior to a fire. We 
cannot infer from this, however, that forms found in quantity were ipso 
facto always produced in great quantity, nor isolated forms always pro- 
duced only in small numbers. Had the pottery burned in 1880 or 1886, the 
relative sherd quantitative picture would undoubtedly have been quite 
different. 

For this reason, as well as the conditions under which the excavations 
were carried out, no statistical count or analysis was attempted. Without 
reconstruction of every sherd in tons of pottery, no analysis could lead to 
a conclusion other than that, possibly, one form on breaking fragmented 
into more sherds than another. Even with total collection and reconstruc- 
tion, after perhaps a century of sherd-gluing, a statistical analysis could do 
no more than present the fact of current inventory, which in itself, without 
relationship, would be knowledge of little worth. 

From sheer sherd tonnage, total inventory was heavy at the time of both 
fires, and rather greater in 1883. It was also obvious that some forms, 
particularly salt-glazed wares and some moulded or slip-cast pieces, were 
in relatively heavier stock than others at the moment of each fire. 

69 



The nature of artifacts recovered, however, indicates strongly that 
inventory on hand did not necessarily reflect actual production at the time 
of each fire. Moulded and cast wares, requiring specific machinery and 
mould set-ups, were probably produced periodically, until a sizable inven- 
tory was created, rather than continuously. With a maximum of fifteen 
employees in 1883, the number of moulded forms alone offered from 
inventory, to say nothing of the huge production of hand-formed salt-glazed 
wares, could not all have been produced on a continuing and simultaneous 
basis. 

It is very probable that actual production at the time of the fire of 1883 
was limited to those pieces of which sherds were found unglazed and semi- 
fired, i.e. container-wares, one-quart jugs, shell-patterned spittoons, one 
bowl pattern, reeded-based pitchers, and press-moulded pans and plates. 
Some greenwares, perhaps even other patterns, undoubtedly went through 
the fire unscathed and were reduced to lumps of raw clay (of which 
quantities were found) by firemen's hoses or the next rain. 

Of the moulded and cast wares in particular, the heavy stock of finished 
pottery could represent in some cases an inventory of several months' dura- 
tion and perhaps, in cases of slow-selling wares, of several years. In the 
absence of any company records, this cannot be established. 

Only a few artifacts other than pottery were found in the excavations. 
These included some general hand tools, some non-Brantford ceramics 
(largely imported English whitewares), much of a badly broken cast-iron 
heating stove, quantities of iron cut nails of various sizes, and two clay 
pipe bowls of the mid- 19th century — all exactly what might have been 
expected. There was no indication of iron machinery or equipment, even to 
the extent of basic power transmission arrangements: shafts, gears and 
pulleys. There seems little doubt that such heavy iron machinery must have 
been recovered and salvaged, for it would certainly not be badly damaged 
by fire. Other equipment, potters' wheels, clay mixing and refining tubs, 
and potters' hand tools, would have been largely wooden, while plaster-of- 
Paris moulds certainly disintegrated. Thus the lack of discovery of pro- 
ductive equipment was not at all surprising. 

Because the site was surfaced after the fire of 1883, and more recently 
the original creek bed (the probable pottery dump) had been deeply earth- 
filled, the excavations could establish nothing of the operations or products 
of the pottery after 1883. Occasional isolated shreds, primarily of moulded 
or slip-cast green- or blue-glazed wares, were recovered from the surface 
level in areas excavated by contractors, but nothing which added substan- 
tially to information from extant pieces. For purposes of completing the 
overall picture, therefore, the period of 1884-1906 has been examined 
largely, and certainly incompletely, from the aspect of existing specimens 
of pottery. 



70 



V The Pottery after 1883 

Following the completion of the third and final pottery building in 1884, 
W. E. Welding operated as sole proprietor until 1894, when he sold the 
business and physical plant to the Lowrey-Hemphill-Schuler joint-stock 
company, and the pottery came essentially under the administration of 
Henry Schuler. 

That the operation during the ten-year period 1884-1894 grew in size 
and volume is established, but the nature of Welding's products, other than 
salt-glazed container wares, is only superficially known. We can certainly 
conclude that, given an unchanged market, salt-glazed wares, most marked 
w. e. welding as earlier, continued to comprise a great part of total 
production until 1894. After 1894 the same types and forms remained in 
continual production without apparent change, the usual marking now 
b.s. mfg. co. ltd. / brantford, until the closing of the pottery. The 
salt-glazed wares are not in question. 

We cannot be sure, however, whether after 1883 Welding continued 
manufacture of the same moulded and slip cast wares as before, but 
indications are that he did not. From the known extent of the fire, and 
excavation evidence, it seems certain that most if not all moulds and 
patterns were destroyed in the blaze; plaster of Paris would not survive 
fire and water. Identical new moulds could have been made, but probably 
only with difficulty. 

In the period before 1883 no form or pattern of the household wares 
had been marked. Many obviously post- 1883 pieces are known, however, 
marked brantford / Canada on the base. Most are stylistically very much 
of the 1885-1910 period, many with green or blue glazes. None of the 
forms or patterns found bearing this marking, of many dozens examined, 
coincide in any way with recoveries from the excavations. Several, including 
a lid identical to that on the teapot (fig. 76) are pieces, or identical to 
pieces, still owned by the Schuler family in Brantford and known to have 
been made during the period of Henry Schuler's association with the 
pottery (c. 1885-1907). 

Though there is always the possibility that the brantford / Canada 
mark was used as early as the 1880s, there is no real evidence for assigning 
it to Welding's proprietorship at any period, particularly considering his 
earlier practice of never marking. (And, individualist that he obviously 
was, why would he not have used his own name?) Conversely, from the 
number of extant marked and stylistically late pieces (particularly figs. 
75-78), there seems considerable support for an assumption that brant- 
ford / Canada was instead the mark for moulded and cast wares only 
of the Brantford Stoneware Manufacturing Co., Ltd., after 1894. 

Moulded patterns are something else again. Only one slip-cast patterned 
form is known to have survived the fire of 1883 (figs. 61, 62) ; it was found 
in the excavations and is known to have been produced into the post- 1894 
period. No other extant pieces of pre- 1883 patterns have been found that 
can be ascribed to the later period, nor have any been seen glazed with the 

71 



greens and blues that later came into general use. It would seem, therefore, 
that after 1883 Welding, perhaps with a few exceptions, largely abandoned 
his earlier patterns and instead developed new forms, many of which 
continued in production into the era of the joint-stock company. Henry 
Schuler, who was in the pottery in 1885 and assumed control in 1894, may 
perhaps have been responsible for some of the new styles. 

Conforming to the tastes of the period, new glaze colours were intro- 
duced: cobalt-oxide blues, copper-oxide greens, iron-oxide dark reds, and 
lead-oxide transparent high glosses. The earlier Rockingham and yellow 
glazes were still used on many forms, but the new glazes added a variety 
that had earlier been lacking. 

In the absence of company documents or excavation recoveries, we can 
only view the period after 1883 as a continuous unit. The change of control 
in 1894, given management and employee continuity, probably did not 
signal any abrupt product change. Rather, earlier items were carried over. 
From a present view, always subject to new information, the introduction 
of the brantford / Canada marking seems the only reasonable dividing 
line between the Welding and the corporate periods. 

The entire 1884-1907 span of the Brantford pottery is thus still rather 
ill-defined. As an appendage to the primary examination of the pre-1883 
period, this survey and the illustrations are included simply as an indication 
of the direction the pottery took in its final quarter-century, and as a 
sampling, to which many more pieces could undoubtedly be added, of its 
products. 



Bibliography 



BARBER, E. A., 1906 

Salt-glazed stoneware, Germany, Flanders, England and the United 
States. Philadelphia, Printed for the Museum. 

BARRET, R. C, 1958 

Bennington pottery and porcelain; a guide to identification. New York, 

Crown Publishers. 
BLAIR, c. d., 1966 

The potters and potteries of Summit County, 1828-1915. Akron, Ohio, 

Summit County Historical Society. 
Brant County Records Office. Memorials, land transfers. 
Brantford Expositor, 1872-1902. 

COLLARD, ELIZABETH, 1967 

Nineteenth-century pottery and porcelain in Canada. Montreal, McGill 

University Press. 
Journal of the Board of Arts and Manufactures for Upper Canada, Toronto, 

1865. 
mackay, r. w. s., 1851 [1857/58] 

The Canada directory, containing the names of the professional and 

business men of every description, in the cities, towns, and principal 

villages of Canada. Montreal, John Lovell. 

72 



Ontario. Laws, statutes, etc. "Ontario joint stock companies letters patent act" 
(In Revised Statutes of Ontario, 1887. Chapter 15 /) 

page & smith, 1875 

Illustrated historical atlas of the County of Brant, Ontario . . . Toronto, 
Page & Smith. 

PITKIN, A. H., 1918 

Early American folk pottery, including the history of the Bennington 
pottery . . . Hartford, Conn. [The Case, Lockwood & Brainard Co.] 

RAMSAY, JOHN, 1939 

American potters & pottery. [Boston] Hale, Cushman and Flint. 

REVEILLE, F. D., 1920 

History of the County of Brant. Brantford, Ont., Brant Historical 
Society. 

RIES, HEINRICH AND HENRY LEIGHTON, 1909 

History of the clay-working industry in the United States. 1st ed. New 
York, J. Wiley & Sons. 

SCOON, CAROLYN, 1945 

"New York State stoneware in the New York Historical Society." 
(New York Historical Society. Quarterly bulletin, v. 29, no. 2, pp. 
83-91.) 

SHACKLETON, PHILIP, 1964 

Potteries of 19th century Ontario. Ottawa. (Report to the Dept. of 
Northern Affairs and Natural Resources. Historic Sites Branch.) 
SPARGO, JOHN, 1926 

The potters and potteries of Bennington. Boston, Houghton, Mifflin Co. 
and Antiques Incorporated. 

TAYLOR, D. R. AND PATRICIA TAYLOR, 1966 

The Hart pottery, Canada West. Picton, Ont., Picton Gazette Pub. Co. 

WARNER, BEERS & CO., 1883 

The history of the County of Brant, Ontario . . . Toronto, Warner, 
Beers & Co. 

WEBSTER, D. B. 

American decorated stoneware. Rutland, Vt.. Charles E. Tuttle (in 
press) 



73 










utsr 







Fig. 65 The Brantford Stoneware Manufacturing Co., Ltd., as it appeared in 1895. 
This plant was completed in 1884 by W. E. Welding, as the third pottery building, 
after the fire of 1883. It was essentially built on, but greatly expanded beyond, the 
foundations of the earlier factory. The building, considerably altered, was demolished 
in December, 1966. 



I - ,. - 




Fig. 66 Unlike cast and moulded 
wares, the purely utilitarian salt-glazed 
stoneware did not change with shifts 
and trends in popular taste. In later 
periods blue-glazed decorations were 
largely eliminated, applied only to 
small numbers of pieces, but shapes 
and forms universally established in 
the 1850s and 1860s remained 
relatively constant. 
This six-gallon butter churn, with 
floral decoration in cobalt-oxide blue, 
is marked B.s. mfg. co. ltd./ 
brantford, the pottery's final 
salt-glaze marking, current from 
1894 to 1907. 
Private collection 



74 








Fig. 67 These press-moulded, Rockingham-glazed bowls with vertical base-to-rim 
ribbing are each marked brantford/canada on the base, indicating probable post- 
1894 manufacture. The same pattern, unmarked, may have been produced in the 
1884-1894 period. 
Canadiana, r.o.m. 




'*% 





w'^^m 



Fig. 68 The marking brantford/canada, found as a glazed-over moulded impres- 
sion in the bases of cast and moulded wares, is the probable housewares mark of the 
Brantford Stoneware Manufacturing Co. 



75 





Fig. 69 Green-glazed cast and moulded wares, in the manner of mottled Rocking- 
ham glazes, were a late development, possibly post-1894. Both pieces of this ewer 
and wash-basin set are marked brantford/canada on the base. 
Canadiana, r.o.m. 




Fig. 70 Though miniature salesmen's samples were not produced in quantity, their 
forms are indicative of larger standard versions. This miniature bowl and covered 
pot, both green-glazed, are unmarked but are known patterns made primarily after 
1894, and perhaps earlier under Welding. 
Private collection 



76 





Fig. 71 Green- and blue-glazed, these miniature samples are of pitchers and jardi- 
nieres made by the Brantjord Stoneware Manufacturing Co. (1894-1906) and are 
still owned by the Schuler family. 
Private collection 




#:««*fiu 



Fig. 72 Three slip-cast cream pitchers, these pieces are perhaps Welding products 
of the late 1880s or early 1890s. None are marked. All are green-, blue-, or pink- 
glazed. The centre piece is probably an earlier production version of the sample in 
fig. 71, right. 
Private collection 



11 




Fig. 73 Most nineteenth century potteries mode jelly and pudding moulds as basic 
kitchen wares. The larger yellow- and the smaller white-glazed both are in the 
Schuler family, and were probably made c. 1885-1895. Neither is marked. 
Private collection 




Fig. 74 This press-moulded, yellow-glazed funnel, for filling large-necked con- 
tainers or wooden barrels, is another unmarked Schuler-era piece, probably c. 
7555-7595. 
Private collection 



78 





o z: 



Fig. 75 This butter far and plain vase are both glazed in a rich blue. Schuler 
family pieces, both are probably of the early 1890s or early 1900s. The vase is 
marked simply Canada on the base. 



Fig. 76 A late teapot with rather 
crude moulded relief decorations, 
this piece is a rich brown with glossy 
overglaze, and is marked brantford/ 
Canada. The Schuler family owns an 
identical lid. Earlier unmarked 
versions are known, identical in form 
but without figures or designs. 
Private collection 




79 




Fig. 77 A prime example of the 
styles of the 1890s, this slip-cast 
pitcher is light green above and dark 
below. Like the jardiniere (fig. 78), it 
is marked brantford/canada, and 
numbers of extant pieces are known. 
Canadiana, r.o.m. 




Fig. 78 In a similar style, this green-glazed jardiniere shows in its indistinct pattern 
moulding and ungainly design a certain decline from the Welding period. 
Canadiana, r.o.m. 



80